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According to the Encyclopædia Britannica, "A quarter to a third of the population of some areas of Thailand and Burma were slaves in the 17th through the 19th centuries." This has been ascribed to the long succession of able rulers in the past four centuries who exploited the rivalry and tension between the French and British Empire.In 1896, Britain and France guaranteed of the Chao Phraya valley as their buffer state (not the whole of Siam), while the remaining parts of Southeast Asia were colonized by the western powers.
Its maritime boundaries include Vietnam in the Gulf of Thailand to the southeast, and Indonesia and India on the Andaman Sea to the southwest.Ayutthaya's expansion centred along the Menam while in the northern valleys the Lanna Kingdom and other small Tai city-states ruled the area.In 1431, the Khmer abandoned Angkor after Ayutthaya forces invaded the city.Manufacturing, agriculture, and tourism are leading sectors of the economy.), is a country at the centre of the Indochinese peninsula in Southeast Asia.The country has always been called Mueang Thai by its citizens.(198,000 sq mi), Thailand is the world's 50th-largest country.
It is the 20th-most-populous country in the world, with around 69 million people.
The Thai economy is the world's 20th largest by GDP at PPP and the 27th largest by nominal GDP.
It became a newly industrialised country and a major exporter in the 1990s.
Following the decline and fall of the Khmer empire in the 13th–15th century, the Buddhist Tai kingdoms of Sukhothai, Lanna, and Lan Xang (now Laos) were on the rise.
However, a century later, the power of Sukhothai was overshadowed by the new Kingdom of Ayutthaya, established in the mid-14th century in the lower Chao Phraya River or Menam area.
According to George Cœdès, "The Thai first enter history of Farther India in the eleventh century with the mention of Syam slaves or prisoners of war in" Champa epigraphy, and "in the twelfth century, the bas-reliefs of Angkor Wat" where "a group of warriors" are described as Syam.